Arthroscopic surgical skills should be trained by actual instrument handling preferably in a simulated environment away from the operating room. This guarantees patient safety and allows the trainee to make mistakes as part of the learning process.
The PASSPORT (Practice Arthroscopic Surgical Skills for Perfect Operative Real-life Treatment) gives a real-life training environment by providing natural sensory feedback, and clinical variation built in a dummy knee and offers adequate feedback on performance for optimal training. PASSPORT offers these features by a unique combination of physical and virtual components.
The patient’s joint is replaced by a physical phantom. All items to simulate a real-life arthroscopic operating setting are included such as a small operating joint space, visual disturbances (e.g. bleedings) and real instruments. This approach ensures that vision, force and tactile sensory feedback is inherently present. This movie gives an impression of the prototype of PASSPORT simulator. Please see a demo of a navigation task and a lateral meniscectomy.
Feedback on performance is very important during training. Affordable and robust sensors are combined with knowledge on the desired proficiency level of arthroscopic skills to measure performance of task execution and monitor safe tissue manipulation. Missing safety levels of performance parameters are measured experimentally. Using augmented reality, feedback is given during exercises.
Tuijthof G.J.M., Visser P., Sierevelt I.N., van Dijk C.N., Kerkhoffs G.M.M.J., Does Perception of Usefulness of Arthroscopic Simulators Differ with Levels of Experience?. Clin Orthop Rel Research, 469(6):1701-8 2011.
Tuijthof G.J.M., Horeman T., Schafroth M.U., Blankevoort, L., Kerkhoffs G.M.M.J., Arthroscopic probing forces of menisci. Knee Surg Sport Tr A, 19:248-254, 2011.
Tuijthof G.J.M., Horeman T., Training facility, surgical instruments and artificial knee with an upper limb and a lower limb for simulation and training of arthroscopic surgical techniques. N2006846 (2011).
Tuijthof G.J.M., Sterkenburg M.N. van, Sierevelt I.N., Oldenrijk J. van, van Dijk C.N., Kerkhoffs G.M.M.J., First validation of the PASSPORT training environment for arthroscopic skills. Knee Surg Sport Tr A, 18(2):218-24, 2010.
Tuijthof G.J.M., Heeman P., Blankevoort L., van Dijk C.N., Physical simulation environment for arthroscopic joint irrigation, J Medical Devices, 3:(021002)1-6, 2009.